Mount Gamalama (Peak of Ternate) is a near-conical stratovolcano that comprises the entire island of Ternate off the western coast of Halmahera. It is one of Indonesia’s most active volcanoes.
The island of Ternate was a major regional center in the Portuguese and Dutch spice trade for several centuries, which contributed to the thorough documentation of Gamalama‘s historical activity. Three cones, progressively younger to the north, form the summit of Gamalama, which reaches 1715 m.
Several maars and vents define a rift zone, parallel to the Halmahera island arc, that cuts the volcano. Eruptions, recorded frequently since the 16th century, typically originated from the summit craters, although flank eruptions have occurred in 1763, 1770, 1775, and 1962-63. Some eruptinos such as in 1771, 1773, 1775, 1838, 1871, and as lately as in 1962 caused fatalities.
On the south of Ternate City, the Portuguese built the unfinished Kayu Merah Fortress on 1510. The peak of Gamalama can be reached by trail. It has three craters and its surrounding environment is very beautiful. Stones from Gamalama’s eruption are scattered across the landscape.
Source: GVP, Smithsonian Institution, indonesia-tourism